What Is IPV (Intimate Partner Violence) And Everything About It?

Depressing Women Due To Ipv
fizkes / Getty Images

Intimate partner violence (IPV), often known as domestic violence, has recently gained notoriety as a widespread invisible crime. It is seen as invisible because it frequently wears a strong sense of shame and secrecy. A person’s current or former boyfriend, girlfriend, sexual partner, spouse, or domestic partner is considered to be an intimate partner. The early tension-building phase, the acute battering phase, and the honeymoon phase are three common patterns of behaviour that are connected with the dynamics of IPV. These cycles contribute to the denial, perplexity, and bewilderment that domestic abuse’s victims experience.

IPV is gaining notoriety as a public health emergency in the US. Does IPV have a preventable cause? If yes, what strategies have been proven to lessen this prevalent form of violence?

What are the different phases of IPV

One must be able to recognise IPV in order to comprehend how to prevent it. Lenore Walker, a psychologist, proposed three stages of domestic abuse in the late 1970s.

Initial Stage: Building Tension

The development of domestic abuse is described in this stage. Fighting over money, children, jobs, or other issues may occur during this era. This is typically when verbal abuse starts. This “stress” eventually reaches a crescendo and gives way to the full-on phase of physical abuse.

The Serious Abuse Incident could be the second stage

The majority of the time, this phase is the outcome of an outside event (such as the loss of a job, a new pregnancy, or another external occurrence). The abuser’s emotional state, such as when they are impaired by drink or drugs, is another factor that could be at play. The trigger that angers the abuser is frequently unpredictably unexpected. Strangely enough, a victim could even desire the abuse to begin so they can let go of their stress and progress to the last stage.

The honeymoon phase is the third stage.

This stage of the abuse cycle serves to solidify the bond between the parties and persuade the victim that there is no justification for leaving. In this stage, the abuser expresses genuine regret, apologises, and makes an effort to be kind and supportive. A forceful apologies and a commitment not to hurt the person again are typically offered in response.

It’s critical to realise that intimate partner violence rarely happens suddenly. Intimate partner violence (IPV), which affects millions of Americans of all ages, is a severe public health issue that can be stopped, according to the Atlanta, Georgia-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1 It is a process that gets worse over time and steadily lowers the victim’s sense of worth, their hopes for a brighter future, and their conviction that they are deserving of better. IPV rarely happens in a single incident, and once it starts, it rarely ends.

What Are The Possible Violence Types

Many research organisations view IPV as a reproductive health issue in the United States due to the high prevalence of rape victims caused by it. In reality, IPV “disproportionately hurts women and has serious repercussions for their sexual and reproductive health and autonomy,” according to a recent Guttmacher Institute article. 

  • One in ten women who have suffered violence from an intimate partner also report having been raped, the piece continues. The CDC also provided the following statistics on IPV:
  • In the United States, over 23% of women and 14% of men claim that a spouse has physically harmed them severely.
  • Approximately 16% of women and 7% of males report sexual assault or rape as an experience.

The CDC also notes that different racial or ethnic groups experience IPV (including sexual, physical, or stalking violence) to varying degrees.

Recognizing IPV

  • The abuse that is frequently committed in connection with IPV is widespread.
  • Violence or aggression committed by a current (or former) intimate relationship.
  • Stalking
  • psychological assault using a variety of methods (including coercion)
  • Physical abuse
  • sexual assault (including rape)
  • actions aimed at gaining control and influence over a romantic relationship
  • forced reproduction (an attempt to force a partner into initiating, keeping, or terminating a pregnancy)
  • coercive methods (via phone, electronic devices, or face-to-face contact)

The effects of IPV can differ greatly. However, a wide range of detrimental results for each spouse and their family members typically characterise the common repercussions. Economic instability, a variety of negative effects on mental health, physical issues, and harm to reproductive health and autonomy are all possible.

Typical Risks That Can Occur

The following high-risk factors are frequently connected to intimate partner violence, according to the CDC: 

  • Age (adolescents and young adults are most at risk) (adolescents and young adults are most at risk)
  • low earnings
  • Unemployment
  • Childhood exposure to violence
  • abuse or neglect inflicted upon children
  • features of stress, anxiety, and antisocial behaviour
  • approving of violence in marriage
  • maintaining a commitment to rigid gender roles (such as women should not work outside the home)
  • prior experience in a partnership with peer or domestic violence
  • past involvement with drugs or crime
  • Conflict or hostility in previous relationships leads to divorce or breakdown.
  • residing in a low-income area or an area where the locals are reluctant to get involved

The CDC has also identified some high-risk indicators for IPV offenders. It’s interesting to see how similar the risk factors are for both perpetrators and victims.

  • Age (adolescents and young adults are most at risk) (adolescents and young adults are most at risk)
  • low income or low level of education.
  • Unemployment
  • Childhood exposure to violence
  • abuse, neglect, or inadequate parenting you experienced as a child
  • Characteristics of stress, anxiety, or antisocial behaviour
  • approving of violence in marriage
  • IPV abuse or victimisation in the past
  • being a participant in or a perpetrator of peer violence
  • past involvement with drugs or crime
  • antagonistic communication techniques
  • Conflict or hostility in previous relationships leads to divorce or breakdown.
  • poverty in the area or residing in a neighbourhood where neighbours are reluctant to engage active

Prevention Methods That Can Be Followed

The question of what can be done about IPV remains once the common characteristics of this type of violence have been recognised and its prevalence has been acknowledged.

According to the CDC, a number of interventions have been shown to be successful. These consist of: 

  • Enhancing the household’s financial security. Lack of resources to sustain the family frequently encourages the victim to continue in the abusive relationship, increasing the risk of IPV. This is because they are unable to afford the costs associated with moving or covering household expenditures on their own. Programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) may be able to help.
  • Programmes that assist work and family. Employers can contribute to a decrease in the prevalence of IPV by providing benefits like maternity leave and sick time for parents of sick children. It has been discovered that maternity leave increases the likelihood that women will keep their jobs for a long time. This aids domestic violence victims in raising their household income. In addition, women who take their time returning to the workforce after having birth are less likely to experience depression than those who start working right away.
  • Programmes for assisting survivors. It has been discovered that addressing some of the harmful effects of IPV (sexually transmitted illnesses, chronic pain, depression, substance misuse, PTSD, and more) is successful in reducing IPV rates. Domestic abuse puts children at risk for emotional illnesses like anxiety, depression, and others. In order to stop future domestic abuse, survivors require assistance with everything from treating physical and emotional issues to receiving support for housing instability. The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act and the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act are two pieces of legislation designed to meet these needs.
  • Initiatives for prevention, instruction, and screening It has been demonstrated that IPV screening, education, and intervention reduce the risk of domestic violence. It has been demonstrated that these programmes could have a favourable impact on IPV survivors and their offspring. Domestic violence shelters, family housing initiatives, and first responder initiatives that address domestic violence in the family are further treatments that have been demonstrated to reduce the occurrence of IPV.

The following are some possible advantages of IPV prevention programmes:

  • residential security
  • an improvement in physical security
  • Reduction of PTSD, despair, and anxiety Reduction of future IPV encounters
  • enhancement of effective parenting techniques
  • The offspring of IPV survivors exhibit less verbal and physical aggressiveness.
  • The decrease in homicide rates brought on by IPV
  • Increased birth weights and better pregnancy outcomes overall for women
  • decreases in the prevalence of forced pregnancy and reproductive coercion

Last Line

Violence against intimate partners has a wide range of effects and affects people of all ages. The cycle of domestic violence can be broken and the silence for those affected by it can be broken by someone who is aware of how frequently it occurs, the indicators, what puts people at risk, and how to stop it.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!